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Meaning and Significance of the Notional Field in Ernest Hemingway s Short Story The Snows of Kilimanjaro, Mihaela Dumitriu s paper aims at analyzing the meaning and the significance of the notional field which engenders the action of the short story.
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Dealing with the theme of the Eternal Snows of Hemingway, the author intends to use, as an analysis criterion, the frequency of notions in The Snows of Kilimanjaro. Thus, she considers that readers could objectively get into the significance field of the innermost laboratory of Hemingway s creation. Expressed by nouns, notions are the new elements to work with, and the fundamental forms of human thinking which reflect general, essential and necessary features of a class of objects.
Their choice, in the process of selection and expression of human thinking, means an option, or a remark, related to a certain existence. Analyzing them, the author finds out the field of meanings of Ernest Hemingway s thinking, laying special stress on the multifaceted symbol of the snow image in his work as particularly illustrated in the short story The Snows of Kilimanjaro.
To sustain this thesis, the author proceeds to a three-fold approach. Firstly, she outlines the major contributions which have succeeded in developing a theory of cognitive models capable of dealing with abstract concepts as well. Secondly, she describes the specificity of abstract entities versus concrete ones, both from the grammatical perspective and from the acquisition perspective.
TRANSLATION STUDIES: RETROSPECTIVE AND PROSPECTIVE VIEWS. - PDF
Finally, taking into account the fact that, unlike the concrete categories, the abstract categories can no longer be referred to as best examples instead, they can be described by means of Idealized Cognitive Models, where degrees of abstractness are higher, she provides an analysis of emotions across cultures based on the model described by Wierzbcika In Aspects of Translating Passive Constructions in the Law Discourse, Carmen Maftei considers some problems of passive constructions with frequency of occurrence in the discourse of law.
Leaving aside cases of similarity in the structure and meaning of passive constructions, the approach considers only some of the difficult situations in which such constructions occur. The author admits that difficulties brought about by the passive constructions have been the core of many debates among linguists in many countries of the world, belonging to different linguistic schools and to various trends, and drawing on this background, she chooses to focus on the types of passive constructions commonly used in the law discourse in order to clarify their peculiarities and special uses.
In a less rigid and stiff manner, the paper Challenges in Teaching English Verbs to Chinese Students describes Iulian Mardar s six-year teaching experiments and experience with learners whose mother tongue lacks a verbal system comparable to the English one.
The author states that teaching a foreign language has always been considered to be an incredibly challenging task, especially in those situations in which the foreign language to be taught and the native language of the speaker s are significantly different from each other. The present paper, a glimpse of its author s experience in Taiwan is intended to illustrate, on the one hand, essential morphologic differences existing between English and Chinese verbs, and possible approaches to teaching English verbs to Chinese students, on the other.
For instance, verb categories such as mood, tense, aspect and number, are absent in Chinese. Consequently, the teaching of English verbs to Chinese students requires that these notions be previously explained by appealing to the students both linguistic and extra-linguistic knowledge. Moreover, the distinction between notional, auxiliary and semi-auxiliary verbs is of utmost importance, due to the fact that certain verbs may have a different status in different contexts e.
Teaching English verbs to elementary Chinese students is even more challenging. If teenagers and adults have enough experience to understand that there is a great variety of languages functioning in different ways, 7 year-old children cannot grasp the complexity of the mechanisms behind a given language system. Iulian Mardar is a teacher at a primary school and a first year master student, specializing in Translation and Interpretation; contact: To achieve this end, the author considers that the theoretical preliminaries call attention to the difficulties of literary translation and presents several aspects of the cognitive approach to metaphor, seen as relevant for her study.
Commenting on the un translatability of the metaphor of light, the author eventually tries to prove how the process of translation and the understanding of the message encoded in a literary text are in close connection providing appropriate examples from the Woolfian text.
Against the background provided by the resurgence of the inter-ethnic conflict in Northern Ireland, the Field Day Theatre Company was founded in as a form of cultural intervention in the Troubles.
Among the twelve plays produced by the company between andfive engaged with the politics of translation, either as theme, or adaptation of canonised texts in the history of European theatre.
These plays are political statements on the Irish experience in so far as they prompt a redefinition of Irish identity outside the confines of historically inherited oppositional patterns, by problematising, through language, parallel and parable, the encounter with the other culture and text. In Looking At Time Again: She continues with a glimpse at how poetic thought goes beyond the ordinary way conventional metaphoric thought is used, and she concludes with some remarks on the way translators handle time-related metaphorical expressions in Mihai Eminescu s poems.
Esra Ozkaya-Saltoglu offers a bird s eye view on the field of translation studies in relation to banking activities in her paper, Translation Studies in Business Life: Taking as a starting point the generally accepted assumption that the whole world is undergoing a major change at the moment, which affects individual states on the micro and macro scales, the author shows her interest in discussing in particular the case of Turkey, as a country which has taken steps to join the European Union, which is located on a very interactional passing position between many diverse cultures and which has been affected by globalization currently the number-one issue on world s agenda.
Given the impact of these changes in society, Turkey seems to be in a position which makes a must of the acts of translation and interpretation. The professional business sector and more specifically the banking business is one of the many areas which require multilingual and multicultural communication, hence the inevitable presence of translators and interpreters as experts during the business activities. From daily meetings to more organized occasions, from draft papers to legal documents, translation and interpreting are required to a great extent for the sake of accurate and misunderstanding-free communication as well as for the smooth exchange of information and ideas.
The author questions whether this means that the time of the professional translators and interpreters as specialists has finally come in the field of business interaction and communication between different banks from different cultures and languages.
She equally wonders whether banks acquired by larger banking trusts resort to 11 12 Foreword the professional assistance of translators and interpreters as individuals with expertise in this specific field, be it the translation of documents, directions or the interpreting provided on any communication occasion.
Thus she demonstrates that this is his only play in which a female Apollonian is pitched against a female Dionysian with the result that the end of the play brings comic reconciliation as dualism merges into likeness and the border between the two camps becomes blurred. In Equivalence in Translation, Ioan Lucian Popa starts form the premise that equivalence can be deemed to constitute one of the fundamental issues in translation.
Nevertheless, its definition, significance, and applicability within the domain of translation theory have been the source of impassioned debate, and various theories of the concept of equivalence have been elaborated in the past fifty years. His paper aims at presenting the ardent scientific quest for the elucidation of the status of the concept of translational equivalence from Koller s transformation of the notion into an argument against theories of general untranslatability and the reactions it generated Toury, Vermeer, Snell-Hornby, etc to present-day approaches to it.
In Translating English Legalese Eponyms into Romanian, Floriana Popescu focuses on a rather marginalized and particularly difficult issue in translations of legalese, namely eponyms and their possible renderings from English as the SL to Romanian as the TL.
Eponyms, as a productive word-creating resource, may generate difficulties in the translation process, when Romanian is the target language. Difficulties originate in the fact that eponyms are being created instantly, as results of contributions belonging to great personalities, famous in the Anglo-American world, but maybe less known to Romanian translators. The degree of eponym recentness also results in their not being included even in the latest and updated versions of general or encyclopedic dictionaries.
As a consequence, translators need either to rely on monolingual specialized dictionaries or to spend long hours in front of their computers trying to solve the enigma created by personal nouns attached as determiners to laws, acts, procedures, etc. The author s approach does not only discuss translation techniques to be resorted to in cases of emergency but also provides a minimal glossary of English legalese eponyms and their Romanian versions, as a useful instrument to translators facing such a challenging task.
A Corpus-Based Analysis, Teodora Popescu describes the results of a computational analysis applied to a corpus of 30 essays nearly 13, words written by learners of English who study economics, in order to put forward a taxonomy of types of errors. In the paper Filmic Translations of Culture, Michaela Praisler addresses the issue of the filmic text which she considers to be culturally marked and therefore symbolic.
The author considers the way in which it invites at creative readings and translations forms of resistance against hegemonic meaning. Michaela Praisler holds a Ph. Language and Culture in Translation starts from the idea that, besides being a set of auditory and written verbal symbols, language also constitutes the most distinctive feature of a culture, which may be described in a simplistic manner as the totality of the beliefs and practices of a society.
Even if a language may be regarded as a relatively small part of a culture, it is indispensable for both the functioning and the existence of a culture. Accordingly, the paper argues, competent translators are always aware that words have meaning and stylistic values in terms of the corresponding culture, but that, nonetheless, while a language can usually be acquired within relatively few years, it takes a lifetime to understand a part of culture.
The author consider that the facetiously entitled paper, as well as the nonexistent hybrid language called Romglish concern the embarrassment of the Romanian who has to know or to infer the meaning of some words and idiomatic structures which are Anglicism lost against a Romanian text. For textual illustration, several examples selected from the media language are analyzed and stress is laid on the fact that some of these examples have, nevertheless, a perfect correspondent in Romanian, if speakers would accept renouncing to their in-born snobbism, while others are quasi-untranslatable due to the new entities they denote in an internationally accepted unique way.
Thus, the paper belongs with tentative approaches to the previously-mentioned phenomenon, describing it through the perspective of cultural studies and translation studies. In Translating Culture Salman Rushdie s Midnight s Children Translation into French and Romanian, the premise that nowadays translations play a very important role in the dissemination of culture, ideology from one country to another and from one people to another is taken as a starting point by Simona Vieru who intends to show to what extent texts like those written by Salman Rushdie may raise difficulties in the translation process precisely because of their being permeated with untranslatable words pertaining to the culture they belong to.
Some of Salman Rushdie s peculiarities, more exactly, the words of Indian origin are looked into as good cases in point and their translations into French and Romanian are contrastively studied. In her opinion, literary translation in the late twentieth century is equally regulated by expectancy reader-oriented norms and by the writer s referent power the authorship issue. Her main line of argumentation foregrounds the idea that there is a high degree of tolerance of the target language text and culture towards the source language culture, hence the majority of culture-bound items direct references and cultural allusions preserved intact into the Romanian version via a policy of annexation, while neutralization is mostly due to an aesthetics of variability.
Eventually, the conclusion is reached that the readership s profile is a complex one the translator addresses initiated readers since they are assisted only in a few instances at the level of the paratext footnotes. In Translation Norms or Constraints, Mine Yazici deals with norm application in the field of translation studies.
Raising questions as to the stage at which norms are involved in the translation process, she expands the notion of norms by comparing it with other relevant concepts such as conventions and rules, to then discuss the impact of norms on translation processes to disclose whether they act as constraints or guidelines. Her study of norms in the translation theory entails the assessment of the translation act in terms of norm-governed behaviour and is sustained by examples from Turkish literature.
In the end, the paper underlines the impact of norms in translation processes, providing a sound ground for those who are interested in norms. Within the framework of the French culture and translation studies, 7 papers were accepted for publication, and they discuss a diversity of topics embracing some theoretical and practical aspects which include, among other interests, the cultural dimension of the translation act, personal experience in the long and pains-taking translation process of a novel as well as didactical aspects of translations seen from a methodological perspective.
On the contrary, they need practice and long hours of hard and steady individual study by means of which they could become conversant with cultural elements in both the source and the target language, thus being able to observe the inner structure of the discourse, and they constantly embark upon a sequence of cognitive operations, assuming the interpretive role of a semiotician. One of the major translation problems was rendering into Romanian Paul Emond s personal lexical coinages created out of French idiomatic structures, for the process of idiosyncratic lexicalization reveals an impressive amount of individual experience combined with dictionary-itemized cultural imagery.
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The transfer of the cultural element has thus imposed on the translator to opt for the translation through equivalence of the newly-coined imagistic idiomatic structures reflecting the author s special inclination for body metaphors difficult to render in the target language. A Methodological Approach draws on class activities in documenting translation practice for methodological purposes in the context of a degree in Applied Modern Languages in the Romanian academic setting.
The main actions the students are prepared towards are: In the proposed framework, linguistic information gathered and documented by students is of three types, i. Much stress is laid particularly upon conscious elaboration on these documenting techniques, as well as upon quantity and quality in the filed information chosen, on account of the contemporaneity of information and of the salience of cultural references, from a French daily newspaper article which provides a large amount of items for the documenting tasks.
In addition to that, the progress of science and technology, as well as the progress of humankind created new instruments of communication. The French and the English languages are no exception to the travel of words through languages; that is why, the author points out, a learner of foreign languages should be aware of this linguistic phenomenon and beware of getting caught in the intricate meanings of borrowed words, accepted by the vocabulary and the culture of their mother tongue.
Gabriela Scripnic s Approche pragmatique de la comparaison idiomatique foregrounds the difficult choices a translator has to make in rendering exclamatory enunciations centred on an adjective.
Such constructions act as indirect speech acts, being frequently the mark of an order or a suggestion. Nowadays, the computer-assisted translating process has achieved remarkable development, and this may be due to a radical change in the acceptance of the role and place of translation activities as well as of the profession of translating within the context of globalization, and information and knowledge transfer.
Looking at computer-assisted translations from the perspective of practical research, the paper draws the readers attention to the extent to which such translations can be interesting and useful, particularly when improvement of translation-assisting instruments is in the offing. Virginia Veja Lucatelli, Ph.
Nevertheless, as emphasized in the paper, before embarking upon any practical activity, learners require the teaching of some basic notions of translatology which should provide the necessary means to enable them to correctly fulfill this type of didactic activity. Though the only representative of Italian studies within the framework of the conference, Vanina Narcisa Botezatu offers an interesting presentation of translation problems in relation to intercultural communication entitled La comunicazione interculturale: Problemi di interpretazione del testo retorica e studi culturali comparati.
Considering both the complexity of the relationships between cultures and the variety of the social contexts in which intercultural communication could be analyzed politics, economics, the legal and educational systems, as well as the familiar and family frameworksshe expands on the need for the development of appropriate methodological instruments for the study of language and cultures in interaction, i.
Finally, within the Romanian culture and translation studies framework, 9 papers were accepted for publication and their horizons include concerns regarding Romanian contributions to the practice of translation of valuable works from different cultures of the world to a Romanian readership.
In the nineteenth century, in the very middle of the Romanian romanticism, the practice of translations witnessed a fast and sturdy development. Synchronizing Romanian literature with the literatures of the western European space, and particularly with the French and English literatures, required the theorization be it a brief one of the translators endeavours, of their stakes and instruments as well as the implicit transformation of translation into a form of critical overtake, in a brand new posture of the Romanian critical discourse that was about to emerge.
Doina Marta Bejan portrays the emblem of the Romanian romanticism, the poet Mihai Eminescu, not as a verse creator but as a translator form German into Romanian. Quoting the two great authors, the paper describes Eminescu s contribution as a translator to be a distinctive moment in the evolution of the Romanian culture and literature. Doina Marta Bejan, Ph. According to linguistic literature, the last fifteen-year evolution of the Romanian language, in general, and that of the vocabulary, in particular, has been a very complex phenomenon whose dynamics makes it impossible to describe as unitary and complete.
The field of advertising is one of the fields of activity borrowing words from other languages, or setting a proper background for the coining of new words for advertising reasons. Romanians have, therefore, enlarged their vocabulary by borrowing, adapting, transforming old words and inventing not only technical terms such as advertising, marketing, spot, but also artistic words such as cool, alintaroma, pupicimetru.
Discussing the context of the appearance of these words, the paper points to their constantly increasing number and argues in favour of the production of a special purpose dictionary to include them and to clarify their meanings. Imposed on literature as a symbolic mediator between the political power and the subjected collectivity, the cultural model of the communist totalitarian utopia produced literary creations tailored according to political requests, which rendered them tributary to the imagery of the socialist realism.
Pushed to the margins of the sociocultural diagram of imagery by the people in power, the resistance through culture - defending writers became the anarchical ferments of an alteration of the directing myth. Studying the space of dissident literature, the author comments on the birth of a countermythology founded on anarchetypal structures Corin Bragaexpressing themselves anarchically if compared to the models of the official mythology.
Thus, the basic pattern that her paper dwells upon is the metaphor of the fractal, which brings the idea of the mirror into play by inviting readers to look for recursive symmetry, while also suggesting a comparison with the kaleidoscope, whose fractured pieces they must re-arrange with the hope of discovering a recognizable form concealed within the fragments.
Literature, in its broadest meaning, is a resonator and a vector of conflicting attitudes, of social tensions intellectuals 17 18 Foreword confront with and which determine their ideological choices and their models. Hence, the focus in the paper on the twentieth-century masters who, from Kirkegaard to Nietzsche or to Heidegger, created the theoretical systems favouring the movement of literature and of all arts towards problematic representations of human ideas.
Thus, she aims to prove that literature has a significant role in exposing the policy of the communist wooden language in its attempt to manipulate people s thought and behaviour.
In this respect, parody proves to be an appropriate instrument of communication and collaboration between the author and the reader, as parodic contexts help to de-construct this particular kind of discourse, showing up its phoniness. Theirs is an indispensable guide for whoever is fascinated, puzzled or exasperated with the mirror chamber that we got used to calling postmodernism.
All in all, the second edition of the International Conference on Translation Studies: The sporadic character in comparison with the relations established with the German, Russian, French or Italian literatures gives the possibility of a clear notice of the local necessities to which these contacts corresponded. The development of these relations is determined by the involvement of the British diplomacy and trade in Eastern Europe.
Gradually, literary contacts are also established. The first English works intercepted by the Romanian scholars were destined only to offer solutions of life adopted by the civilized Europe. The end of the 18th century and the beginning of the next century know the first literary English works through French.
This was a result of the French interest in the English culture and the learning of French in our country. Therefore, aroundthe Romanian people were exposed to the English literature due to the French translations of Dickens, Thackeray, George Eliot and even Gaskell.
The first poets translated into Romanian were those in fashion in western Europe and who constituted the source of inspiration for romantic writers: Learn about mammals, reptiles, birds, fish and amphibians that have adapted to the harsh desert Animal Pictures, Animal Videos, Animals in the News HuffPost View pictures of cute and funny animals, watch animal videos, read feel good stories of animal heroes and rescues, and discuss your favorite animals.
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