In addition to parenting and romantic affairs, attachment style has been associated A second‐level mentor may help students in small groups develop their .. itself to describe close relationships in later stages of development ( Bartholomew. Mentorship is a learning relationship between two or more people, and it typically follows four phases: Preparing: the discovery phase, when you find out if. Even though this stage is most evident in romantic relationships, there are .. In some cases, like a mentoring relationship, both parties can benefit from the students who participated have engaged in heterosexual FWB relationships. Melissa.
Mentoring profiles are completed as written forms on paper or computer or filled out via an online form as part of an online mentoring system.
Informal mentoring takes places in organizations that develop a culture of mentoring but do not have formal mentoring in place. These companies may provide some tools and resources and encourage managers to accept mentoring requests from more junior members of the organization. Fortune companies are also implementing formal mentoring programs on a global scale. Cardinal Health has had an enterprise-wide formal mentoring initiative in place since The initiative encompasses nine formal mentoring programs, some enterprise-wide and some limited to specific business segments and functions.
Goals vary by program, with some focused on employees facing specific challenges or career milestones and others enabling more open-ended learning and development. It has been claimed that new employees who are paired with a mentor are twice as likely to remain in their job than those who do not receive mentorship.
For example, the mentor gets to show leadership by giving back and perhaps being refreshed about their own work. The organization receives an employee that is being gradually introduced and shaped by the organization's culture and operation because they have been under the mentorship of an experienced member. The person being mentored networks, becomes integrated easier in an organization, gets experience and advice along the way. Bullis describes the mentoring process in the forms of phase models.
Initially, the "mentee proves himself or herself worthy of the mentor's time and energy".
Then cultivation occurs which includes the actual "coaching Next, under the phase of separation, "the mentee experiences more autonomy". Ultimately, there is more of equality in the relationship, termed by Bullis as Redefinition. These programs tend to be smaller than more general mentoring programs and mentees must be selected based on a list of eligibility criteria to participate. Another method of high-potential mentoring is to place the employee in a series of jobs in disparate areas of an organization e.
The matching committee reviews the mentors' profiles and the coaching goals sought out by the mentees and makes matches based on areas for development, mentor strengths, overall experience, skill set, location and objectives. Matching through self-match technology Mentoring technology, typically based on computer software, can be used to facilitate matches allowing mentees to search and select a mentor based on their own development and coaching needs and interests.
This mentee-driven methodology increases the speed in which matches are created and reduces the amount of administrative time required to manage the program. Speed mentoring Speed mentoring follows some of the procedures of speed dating. Mentors and mentees are introduced to each other in short sessions, allowing each person to meet multiple potential matches in a very short timeframe. Speed mentoring occur as a one-time event in order for people "to meet potential mentors to see if there is a fit for a longer term engagement.
Peer mentoring Mentoring in education involves a relationship between two people where the mentor plays a supportive and advisory role for the student, the mentee.
This relationship promotes "the development and growth of the latter's skills and knowledge through the former's experience. There are also peer mentoring programs designed specifically to bring under-represented populations into science and engineering. Graduate university alumni are engaging with current students in career mentorship through interview questions and answers.
The students with the best answers receive professional recommendations from industry experts build a more credible CV. Resiliency[ edit ] A specific focus of youth mentoring that addresses the issues that cause students to underachieve in education while simultaneously preparing them to deal with future difficult circumstances that can affect their lives and alter their success is the fostering of resiliency.
Resilience is "the ability to withstand and rebound from disruptive life challenges" and has been found to be a very useful method when working with students of low socioeconomic backgrounds who often encounter crises or challenges and suffer specific traumas.
Resiliency does not provide a solution to the struggles and trauma that these students are experiencing, but instead focuses on giving them the tools to adapt to these situations and respond to them in a way that avoids a negative outcome and enables them to emerge stronger learn from it. Protective factors and risk factors[ edit ] Protective factors "modify or transform responses to adverse events so that [students] avoid negative outcomes" and encourage the development of resiliency, while risk factors are circumstances that perpetuate these poor outcomes and prevent that student from acquiring resilience as a tool.
Examples of these protective factors identified by Reis, Colbert and Hebert in their three-year study of economically disadvantaged and ethnically diverse students include having "supportive adults, friendships with other achieving students, the opportunity to take honors and advanced classes, participation in multiple extracurricular activities both after school and during the summer, the development of a strong belief in the self, and ways to cope with the negative aspects of their school, urban and family environment.
In these environments, students are often exposed to coercive interactions, so positive, personal and harmonious interchanges between the student and some supportive figure can help develop adaptive qualities.
Communication in Relationships
Some of the components that facilitate this development of resilience when combined with the existence of a strong adult-student relationship include after school programs, more challenging classes, peer support programs, summer programs and gifted programs. The discussions between the instructional coach and teacher are built upon mutual respect and a trusting relationship through confidentiality.
Instructional coaches can model lessons and instructional strategies in the teachers' classroom to show examples and have teachers feel more confident in using these strategies. Coaches doing observations and collecting data to debrief with teachers helps paint a picture for teacher improvement. This, however, could not be viewed as solely "instructional coaching" in isolation of other factors.
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Ninety-one percent of teachers coached regularly stated that coaches helped them understand and use new teaching strategies. Seventy-nine percent of teachers coached regularly said that their coach played a significant role in improving their classroom instruction and practice. Teachers who were regularly coached one-on-one reported that: They made significant changes in their instructional practice. Their students were more engaged in the classroom and enthusiastic about learning.
Attendance increased dramatically in their classes. Administrative support[ edit ] There should also be support from administration around the instructional coaching to align the work of the coach and teacher with the school's mission or vision. Knight explains that the principal and the instructional coach need to be aligned in their goals for the coaching occurring. Knight shares how giving opinions and telling a teacher how to improve stops the learning for the teacher and instead creates a barrier between the coach and teacher and makes the teacher expect hand-holding.
Instead, the data needs to tell a story for the teacher to determine moves to try to improve. This allows ownership for the teacher as well as understanding of their work in conjunction with the work.
Another way to build this trust is through confidentiality. By keeping all conversations confidential and sticking to that, the coachee knows that your word is good. In addition to relationship building, it is important to let the coachee feel comfortable talking to you about anything—there may need to be the time when a crisis they are facing trumps conversation about the lesson.
Content and pedagogical knowledge[ edit ] According to Nelson and Sassi, "knowledge of pedagogical process and content knowledge must be fused" in both understanding teaching and observing teaching. Knowledge that coaches need to be effective span just content and pedagogical knowledge. Aguilar uses the ladder of inference to allow coaches to evaluate their own thoughts, and ultimately use this ladder to help principals and teachers evaluate their own beliefs before jumping to assumptions.
Aguilar states that her "list of beliefs has changed over the years. You can change yours, too. The point is to be mindful of the beliefs from which we're working and to notice the effect of working from those beliefs. Reverse mentoring[ edit ] In the reverse mentoring situation, the mentee has less overall experience typically as a result of age than the mentor who is typically olderbut the mentee has more knowledge in a particular area, and as such, reverses the typical constellation.
Examples are when young internet or mobile savvy millennial generation teens train executives in using their high end smartphones. An experienced, perceptive mentor can provide great help in just a few minutes by mak- Page 5 Share Cite Suggested Citation: This section seeks to describe the mentoring relationship by listing several aspects of good mentoring practice.
A good mentor is a good listener. Hear exactly what the student is trying to tell you-without first interpreting or judging. Pay attention to the "subtext" and undertones of the student's words, including tone, attitude, and body language. When you think you have understood a point, it might be helpful to repeat it to the student and ask whether you have understood correctly. Through careful listening, you convey your empathy for the student and your understanding of a student's challenges.
When a student feels this empathy, the way is open for clear communication and more-effective mentoring. The amount of attention that a mentor gives will vary widely. A student who is doing well might require only "check-ins" or brief meetings. Another student might have continuing difficulties and require several formal meetings a week; one or two students might occupy most of an adviser's mentoring time. Try through regular contact-daily, if possible-to keep all your students on the "radar screen" to anticipate problems before they become serious.
Don't assume that the only students who need help are those who ask for it. Even a student who is doing well could need an occasional, serious conversation. One way to increase your awareness of important student issues and develop rapport is to work with student organizations and initiatives. This will also increase your accessibility to students. No mentor can know everything a given student might need to learn in order to succeed.
Everyone benefits from multiple mentors of diverse talents, ages, and personalities. No one benefits when a mentor is too "possessive" of a student. Page 6 Share Cite Suggested Citation: For example, if you are a faculty member advising a physics student who would like to work in the private sector, you might encourage him or her to find mentors in industry as well.Stages Of An Office Romance
A non-Hispanic faculty member advising a Hispanic student might form an advising team that includes a Hispanic faculty member in a related discipline. Other appropriate mentors could include other students, more-advanced postdoctoral associates, and other faculty in the same or other fields. A good place to find additional mentors is in the disciplinary societies, where students can meet scientists, engineers, and students from their own or other institutions at different stages of development.
Page 7 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Social relationships meet some interpersonal needs but lack the closeness of personal relationships. There are stages of relational interaction in which relationships come together initiating, experimenting, intensifying, integrating, and bonding and come apart differentiating, circumscribing, stagnating, avoiding, and terminating.
The weighing of costs and rewards in a relationship affects commitment and overall relational satisfaction. Exercises Review the types of relationships in Figure 7.
Name at least one person from your relationships that fits into each quadrant. How does your communication differ between each of these people? Pick a relationship important to you and determine what stage of relational interaction you are currently in with that person.
What communicative signals support your determination? What other stages from the ten listed have you experienced with this person? How do you weigh the costs and rewards in your relationships? What are some rewards you are currently receiving from your closest relationships? What are some costs? Discuss how friendships change across the life span, from adolescence to later life.
Explain how culture and gender influence friendships. Friendships, like other relationship forms, can be divided into categories. What about work friends, school friends, and friends of the family? In this section, we will learn about the various ways we classify friends, the life cycle of friendships, and how gender affects friendships.
Defining and Classifying Friends Friendships Voluntary interpersonal relationships between two people who are usually equals and who mutually influence one another. Aldine De Gruyter,11— Friendships are distinct from romantic relationships, family relationships, and acquaintances and are often described as more vulnerable relationships than others due to their voluntary nature, the availability of other friends, and the fact that they lack the social and institutional support of other relationships.
The lack of official support for friendships is not universal, though. In rural parts of Thailand, for example, special friendships are recognized by a ceremony in which both parties swear devotion and loyalty to each other.
Rosemary Bleiszner and Rebecca G. Sage,2. Even though we do not have a formal ritual to recognize friendship in the United States, in general, research shows that people have three main expectations for close friendships.
A friend is someone you can talk to, someone you can depend on for help and emotional support, and someone you can participate in activities and have fun with. Aldine De Gruyter, Although friendships vary across the life span, three types of friendships are common in adulthood: Reciprocal friendships Solid interpersonal relationships between people who are equals with a shared sense of loyalty and commitment.
These friendships are likely to develop over time and can withstand external changes such as geographic separation or fluctuations in other commitments such as work and childcare. Reciprocal friendships are what most people would consider the ideal for best friends. Associative friendships Mutually pleasurable relationships between acquaintances or associates that, although positive, lack the commitment of reciprocal friendships.
These friendships are likely to be maintained out of convenience or to meet instrumental goals. Friendships that are maintained because they are convenient and meet an instrumental need, like having a workout partner, are likely to terminate if they become inconvenient or the need changes.
Receptive friendships Friendships that include a status differential that makes the relationship asymmetrical. Unlike the other friendship types that are between peers, this relationship is more like that of a supervisor-subordinate or clergy-parishioner.
In some cases, like a mentoring relationship, both parties can benefit from the relationship. In other cases, the relationship could quickly sour if the person with more authority begins to abuse it. Friends with benefits Relationships that have the closeness of a friendship and the sexual activity of a romantic partnership without the expectations of romantic commitment or labels.
FWB relationships have the closeness of a friendship and the sexual activity of a romantic partnership without the expectations of romantic commitment or labels. VanderDrift, and Janice R. FWB relationships are hybrids that combine characteristics of romantic and friend pairings, which produces some unique dynamics. So why might people choose to have or avoid FWB relationships? Various research studies have shown that half of the college students who participated have engaged in heterosexual FWB relationships.
Bisson and Timothy R. Many who engage in FWB relationships have particular views on love and sex—namely, that sex can occur independently of love. Conversely, those who report no FWB relationships often cite religious, moral, or personal reasons for not doing so. Some who have reported FWB relationships note that they value the sexual activity with their friend, and many feel that it actually brings the relationship closer. Despite valuing the sexual activity, they also report fears that it will lead to hurt feelings or the dissolution of a friendship.
We must also consider gender differences and communication challenges in FWB relationships. Gender biases must be considered when discussing heterosexual FWB relationships, given that women in most societies are judged more harshly than men for engaging in casual sex. So what communicative patterns are unique to the FWB relationship? Those who engage in FWB relationships have some unique communication challenges. For example, they may have difficulty with labels as they figure out whether they are friends, close friends, a little more than friends, and so on.
Research participants currently involved in such a relationship reported that they have more commitment to the friendship than the sexual relationship. But does that mean they would give up the sexual aspect of the relationship to save the friendship? Most participants reported that they would like the relationship to stay the same, followed closely by the hope that it would turn into a full romantic relationship.
Just from this study, we can see that there is often a tension between action and labels. In addition, those in a FWB relationship often have to engage in privacy management as they decide who to tell and who not to tell about their relationship, given that some mutual friends are likely to find out and some may be critical of the relationship.
Last, they may have to establish ground rules or guidelines for the relationship. Since many FWB relationships are not exclusive, meaning partners are open to having sex with other people, ground rules or guidelines may include discussions of safer-sex practices, disclosure of sexual partners, or periodic testing for sexually transmitted infections. Friendships have various turning points that affect their trajectory.
Friendships are also diverse, in that not all friendships develop the same level of closeness, and the level of closeness can fluctuate over the course of a friendship. The formation process of friendship development involves two people moving from strangers toward acquaintances and potentially friends. Sage, Several factors influence the formation of friendships, including environmental, situational, individual, and interactional factors. Clyde Hendrick and Susan S. Hendrick Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage,71— Environmental factors lead us to have more day-to-day contact with some people over others.
For example, residential proximity and sharing a workplace are catalysts for friendship formation. Thinking back to your childhood, you may have had early friendships with people on your block because they were close by and you could spend time together easily without needing transportation. A similar situation may have occurred later if you moved away from home for college and lived in a residence hall. Many new college students form bonds with people in their residence halls that last through college and beyond.
We also find friends through the social networks of existing friends and family. Although these people may not live close to us, they are brought into proximity through people we know, which facilitates our ability to spend time with them.
Encountering someone due to environmental factors may lead to a friendship if the situational factors are favorable. The main situational factor that may facilitate or impede friendship formation is availability. In order for a friendship to take off, both parties need resources such as time and energy to put into it. The number of friends we have at any given point is a situational factor that also affects whether or not we are actually looking to add new friends.
I have experienced this fluctuation. I was also preparing to move within the year to pursue my doctorate. Although I was half-joking, this example illustrates the importance of environmental and situational factors. Instead, I focused on the friendships I already had and attended to my other personal obligations.
Environmental and situational factors that relate to friendship formation point to the fact that convenience plays a large role in determining whether a relationship will progress or not. While contact and availability may initiate communication with a potential friend, individual and interactional factors are also important.
We are more likely to develop friendships with individuals we deem physically attractive, socially competent, and responsive to our needs. Specifically, we are more attracted to people we deem similar to or slightly above us in terms of attractiveness and competence.
Although physical attractiveness is more important in romantic relationships, research shows that we evaluate attractive people more positively, which may influence our willingness to invest more in a friendship.
Friendships also tend to form between people with similar demographic characteristics such as race, gender, age, and class, and similar personal characteristics like interests and values.
Being socially competent and responsive in terms of empathy, emotion management, conflict management, and self-disclosure also contribute to the likelihood of friendship development.
If a friendship is established in the formation phase, then the new friends will need to maintain their relationship.
The four phases of mentorship | Student Life
The maintenance phase includes the most variation in terms of the processes that take place, the commitment to maintenance from each party, and the length of time of the phase. In short, some friendships require more maintenance in terms of shared time together and emotional support than other friendships that can be maintained with only occasional contact. Maintenance is important, because friendships provide important opportunities for social support that take the place of or supplement family and romantic relationships.
Sometimes, we may feel more comfortable being open with a friend about something than we would with a family member or romantic partner. Most people expect that friends will be there for them when needed, which is the basis of friendship maintenance.
As with other relationships, tasks that help maintain friendships range from being there in a crisis to seemingly mundane day-to-day activities and interactions. Failure to perform or respond to friendship-maintenance tasks can lead to the deterioration and eventual dissolution of friendships. Causes of dissolution may be voluntary termination due to conflictinvoluntary death of friendship partnerexternal increased family or work commitmentsor internal decreased liking due to perceived lack of support.
Betrayal of trust can stem from failure to secure private information by telling a secret or disclosing personal information without permission. While these three internal factors may initiate conflict in a friendship, discovery of unfavorable personal traits can also lead to problems. As was mentioned earlier, we are more likely to befriend someone whose personal qualities we find attractive. However, we may not get to experience the person in a variety of contexts and circumstances before we invest in the friendship.
We may later find out that our easygoing friend becomes really possessive once we start a romantic relationship and spend less time with him. These individual factors become interactional when our newly realized dissimilarity affects our communication.
It is logical that as our liking decreases, as a result of personal reassessment of the friendship, we will engage in less friendship-maintenance tasks such as self-disclosure and supportive communication. In fact, research shows that the main termination strategy employed to end a friendship is avoidance. The main change in environmental factors that can lead to friendship dissolution is a loss of proximity, which may entail a large or small geographic move or school or job change.
The two main situational changes that affect friendships are schedule changes and changes in romantic relationships. Additionally, becoming invested in a romantic relationship may take away from time previously allocated to friends.
For environmental and situational changes, the friendship itself is not the cause of the dissolution.