Rwanda–United States relations - Wikipedia
Rwanda's foreign minister was named head of the International Organisation of La Francophonie (OIF) on Friday, a sign of slowly improving. Nepal and Rwanda established formal bilateral diplomatic relations today. Ambassador Mr. Durga Prasad Bhattarai, Permanent. Rwanda, Uganda relations souring amid claims of arrests, deportations Relations between the two countries have been running hot and cold.
If at all possible contact a colleague or superior ahead of time to inform them if you know you will be late or absent. If it is not possible to do so in advance, inform then as soon as possible.
Productivity ebbs and flows. Without needing to account for time, employees will often do personal tasks during work hours such as telephoning friends or reading the Bible.
When a project needs to be completed, employees will often stay late and work weekends to complete it! How will I know how my staff view me? Generally, it is expected that the superior has expertise in a key area of the organization, treats his junior employees fairly especially if he is an expatriateand reassures others about their job security.
People also appreciate a director "who respects himself", and this may be judged by his dress, his acquaintances, and the example that he sets at work. People also appreciate a director who establishes clear work guidelines. As well they appreciate the superior getting involved in extra-professional activities, especially by organizing them and contributing financially. It is not always easy for a superior to know how his staff perceives him. Some establish special ties with members of the organization in order to get feedback, but generally lose out since they may be manipulated and annoy the rest of the staff.
The best way is probably to establish regular contact with people through extra-professional and social activities, thereby building trust.
Qualities highly regarded in a local manager include: Qualities highly regarded in an expat manager include: Because Rwandans are not particularly demonstrative or verbal regarding their thoughts and feelings, it may be difficult for an expat to judge how they are being perceived by their Rwandan colleagues. But, on departure, if you are well respected, you will be lavished with gifts and praise. Cultural Information - Hierarchy and Decision-making Question: In the workplace, how are decisions taken and by whom?
Is it acceptable to go to my immediate supervisor for answers or feedback? Decisions are usually made on a hierarchical basis. Frequently, the pride of many Rwandans prevents them from publicly expressing their ideas if they unsure that they are good ones or if they doubt that they will be approved by their superior.
During meetings held in French or Englishespecially those chaired by expatriates, some people will not speak, simply because they are afraid of speaking poorly in French or English and being the laughing stock of their colleagues. People readily consult their direct supervisor when he is known for his skill and assistance.
Consulting a direct supervisor is also an occasion to make him aware of what is happening and, in general, he will appreciate it.
In the workplace, many decisions are handed down by the administration. But, within your own department, decision-making is a more group effort. It is acceptable to go to your immediate supervisor for answers or feedback if needed. There is definitely a "system" of hierarchy and the proper people need to be consulted in the proper order.
If you are unsure, ask a close Rwandan colleague. Gender, Class, Religion and Ethnicity. What impact would the above attitudes have on the workplace? In organizations, men hold most of the higher-level positions even if more and more women are being promoted to them. In the workplace, women in positions of responsibility must be twice as careful as their male colleagues since their junior employees including women employees, even perhaps especially women may attribute their errors to the fact they are female.
Most Rwandans have a religious faith, but religion does not interfere with professional life although there are a few exceptions. Most people are Christian Catholic, Protestant, Adventist and others are Muslim particularly city-dwellers.
Social classes, as we traditionally think of them, do not exist. However, it may be said that economic standing may define class: People only discuss their ethnic origin with people they know very well and do not feel comfortable discussing it with a "stranger". Even if it is a taboo subject, people who work together know the ethnic origins of all of their colleagues.
Although the sexes are not "equal" in Rwanda as they are not in Canada, eitherRwandese women in the urban centres often work outside the home and are active in politics and business. Men are still considered the head of the household, but since the war, many homes have women as the heads. Just recently, women have received the right to own land.
Religion is very important to Rwandans and almost everyone subscribes to one denomination of Christianity or Islam. Since the genocide, there appears to be an upsurge in "new" Christian sects from outside of the country i. Born Again, Adventists — one explanation for this might be the common perception that the Catholic Church was not there for people during the recent crisis.
If you are a non-believer, be prepared for many persuasive discussions and invitations to church.
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Rwandans often use religion in their greetings i. You may often be asked if you are "saved" i. A simple answer may be, "I have been baptized. Different classes generally do not socialize together but are courteous and greet each other. A person of a lower class will show respect to a superior by shaking hands with the left hand grasping the right forearm and, generally, speaking only when spoken to.
In an atmosphere where people know each other, people will actively show respect. This is not the case in a public situation. On public transport, when people do not necessarily know each other, this would usually not occur.
Ethnicity is, officially, not supposed to be identified and therefore should not impact the workplace. In reality though, one ethnic group is seen to be dominant and is sometimes resented by others. Cultural Information - Relationship-building Question: How important is it to establish a personal relationship with a colleague or client before getting to business? It is not always important to establish close personal relationships with colleagues or business partners. However, in Rwanda, certain social gestures that, in North America, could be considered to be signs of a personal relationship, are not interpreted as such, but are not any less significant.
When, for example, a close relative of a colleague or business partner dies, it is customary to go to the funeral. It is important to establish a relationship with someone before getting to business. It is considered rude to jump into a business transaction before properly greeting someone and having some sort of connection besides the business or work at hand. If this is skipped, people may be less cooperative and your task may be less fruitful. To establish the relationship, be sure to properly greet the person and make some small talk i.
Would a colleague or employee expect special privileges or considerations given our personal relationship or friendship Local Perspective: In Rwanda, it seems obvious that you should receive certain privileges as a result of friendship. This is particularly true when it comes to hiring family members. Having connections allows colleagues to demand things that they would not have been able to ask for in other circumstances.
In sign of better relations, Rwandan heads Francophonie body | Reuters
For example, if a person takes advantage of his connections to ask for a raise he generally will justify his request by stating that it will correct a situation that he deems to be detrimental to him. A colleague or friend may ask for special considerations i.
It is important to listen to the request and empathize with the need. A straight "no" may be too harsh. An answer like "I will try to talk to the people who make those decisions, but cannot promise anything" may be suitably diplomatic. I would recommend granting special consideration for employees with a salary advance or extra time off to allow for travel to their rural home if you count them as reliable employees.
In special circumstances such as weddings and funerals, there may be a work policy on time allowed off and this may need to be flexible depending on the situation. Cultural Information - Conflicts in the Workplace Question: I have a work-related problem with a colleague. Do I confront him or her directly? As a general rule, Rwandans do not like direct confrontation and they avoid it as much as possible.
They do not like their problems to be displayed in public, even if they are insignificant work-related problems. Most Rwandans are proud, or even arrogant. If a problem arises, it is best to confront it at the appropriate time, which means in a way that will not make the individual in question lose face in front of his colleagues. When a colleague is truly offended and, if he considers the insult to be serious, he will generally show it by changing his attitude toward the person who upset him by putting some distance between them, for instance.
He will also talk about it with his other colleagues and meanwhile will avoid confronting the person who offended him. This avoidance means that most interpersonal problems in the organization remain dormant and continue to negatively affect teamwork until those involved officially recognize that a problem exists. It is more common to discuss your problem with a third party in private and to ask that person to discuss the problem with your colleague. Alternately, one could bring up the topic in a staff meeting using very general terms.
It may be best to ask the chair of the meeting to add it to the agenda beforehand. If you have offended someone at work, you may hear about it second hand from another colleague. Or, you may hear about something you may have had a part in during a staff meeting. What motivates my local colleagues to perform well on the job?
People are especially motivated by good working conditions. If it will get them a better salary, people will put forth the necessary effort to improve their performance. Job security is an important motivation considering how difficult it is to find a job. Advancement to a better position for higher pay and a greater social standing is a strong motivator for many Rwandans. Often walking into a business you will see employees sitting and not doing anything.
So, if these people can be trained so that they see a direct benefit of the work they do it may be a better motivator. Employees or colleagues can become unmotivated when they see that their work goes unrecognized or is not adequately remunerated. While working with teachers, I noticed they were motivated when they were recognized for the work they did.
They would have liked to have had monetary recognition but this is not always possible. Verbal recognition kept the teachers going. Another motivation was when the employees saw that their superior also was working hard and doing something.
To help me learn more about the local culture splease recommend: Unfortunately, there are not many influential works written about Rwandan culture and nor are there many authors who writing in French or English who are highly regarded.
Relationship with Rwanda — Redeemer Anglican Church
Strengthening unity and cooperation with African countries is an important foundation for China's foreign policy and a long-term steadfast strategic choice of Beijing, Xi said.
He compared Africa to a galloping lion, saying that China is glad to see a stronger Africa that is increasingly integrated.
Calling the African Union AU a banner guiding African countries to solidarity and cooperation, Xi said China always supports the AU playing a leading role in promoting peace and development of Africa and playing a bigger role in regional and global affairs. China, he added, is willing to elevate the strategic significance of its relationship with the AU, set it as an example and make it more effective, so as to bring more benefits to the Chinese and African people.
Kagame, for his part, called China a reliable friend who shares weal and woe with Africa. He said it is of great importance for Rwanda and Africa to develop friendly ties with China. He spoke highly of China's valuable assistance for Rwanda in such areas as infrastructure construction, agriculture and education, adding that China's helping hand has made positive contributions to his country's reconstruction and livelihood improvement.
The Rwandan president also expressed his hope to strengthen exchanges with China on state governance and deepen win-win cooperation on bilateral as well as multilateral platforms. Rwanda is willing to enhance cooperation with China within the framework of the Belt and Road Initiative, which offers a significant opportunity for both Rwanda and Africa, Kagame said.
Highlights of Rwanda-China relations
As the AU's rotating chairman, Kagame stressed that China's long-standing firm support is of great value to Africa's development. Africa places great importance on China's role in international affairs and is committed to further deepening their friendship and mutually beneficial cooperation, he added.
After their talks, the two heads of state witnessed the signing of multiple agreements on bilateral cooperation in the Belt and Road Initiative and other areas. They also met the press together.