Different animals species help each other hunt, clean and protect themselves from predators. Predation, Mutualism, Commensalism, or Parasitism. they walk. One example are egrets who hunt forinsects near a grazing animals mouth. The word symbiosis comes from Greek origin meaning “together” & “living” and describes a close relationship between species. Six broad.
When prey have a clumped uneven distribution, the optimal strategy for the predator is predicted to be more specialized as the prey are more conspicuous and can be found more quickly;  this appears to be correct for predators of immobile prey, but is doubtful with mobile prey.
This has led to a correlation between the size of predators and their prey.
Predation - Wikipedia
Size may also act as a refuge for large prey. For example, adult elephants are relatively safe from predation by lions, but juveniles are vulnerable. Members of the cat family such as the snow leopard treeless highlandstiger grassy plains, reed swampsocelot forestfishing cat waterside thicketsand lion open plains are camouflaged with coloration and disruptive patterns suiting their habitats.
Female Photuris firefliesfor example, copy the light signals of other species, thereby attracting male fireflies, which they capture and eat. Venom and Evolution of snake venom Many smaller predators such as the box jellyfish use venom to subdue their prey,  and venom can also aid in digestion as is the case for rattlesnakes and some spiders. These changes are explained by the fact that its prey does not need to be subdued.
Antipredator adaptation To counter predation, prey have a great variety of defences. They can try to avoid detection.
They can detect predators and warn others of their presence.
If detected, they can try to avoid being the target of an attack, for example, by signalling that a chase would be unprofitable or by forming groups. If they become a target, they can try to fend off the attack with defences such as armour, quills, unpalatability or mobbing; and they can escape an attack in progress by startling the predator, shedding body parts such as tails, or simply fleeing.
They can also adopt behaviour that avoids predators by, for example, avoiding the times and places where predators forage. Camouflage and Mimicry Dead leaf mantis 's camouflage makes it less visible to both predators and prey. Syrphid hoverfly misdirects predators by mimicking a waspbut has no sting.
5 amazing symbiotic animal relationships you didn't know about
Prey animals make use of a variety of mechanisms including camouflage and mimicry to misdirect the visual sensory mechanisms of predators, enabling the prey to remain unrecognized for long enough to give it an opportunity to escape.
Camouflage delays recognition through coloration, shape, and pattern. In mimicry, an organism has a similar appearance to another species, as in the drone flywhich resembles a bee yet has no sting. It is lowest for those such as woodpeckers that excavate their own nests and progressively higher for those on the ground, in canopies and in shrubs.
Birds also choose appropriate habitat e. Similarly, some mammals raise their young in dens.
However, there are exceptions: For example, Belding's ground squirrel can distinguish several aerial and ground predators from each other and from harmless species. Prey also distinguish between the calls of predators and non-predators. Some species can even distinguish between dangerous and harmless predators of the same species.
The herbivores usually move around feet 91 meters away to resume feeding. In marine environments, krill are small crustaceans that feed on the primary photosynthetic organism of the ocean — phytoplankton. Krill are crucial to the health of the ecosystem because they are the main food source for large mammals like blue whales. Parasitism The parasite that causes malaria, Plasmodium, infects a wide variety of animal hosts — reptiles, birds and mammals — and causes cyclical rounds of high fever and chills.
The parasite uses two hosts — one for reproduction and the other for transmission to a new host. In fact, malaria can be so debilitating that its presence can exert an enormous selection pressure on the host. In regions where the disease is endemic, human populations show a surprisingly high incidence of another illness — sickle cell anemia.
It appears that individuals who are carriers for this genetic disease have increased survival and reproductive fitness when confronted with malaria.
Predation - Definition, Types and Examples | Biology Dictionary
Tapeworms are common human parasites that can cause malnutrition, especially in young children. Filarial worms are parasites that cause skin, eye and lymphatic diseases. Strangler Fig Parasitism is also seen in the plant kingdom. Strangler figs are common tropical plants that behave like parasites. Many belong to the genus Ficus. Their seeds germinate in the crevices of other trees, and they derive their nutrition by dropping roots into the bark of the host tree, rather than into the soil.
Over time, the host tree dies and the strangler fig appears as a tree with a hollow central column. Mutualism The interaction between humans and their gut flora is a classic case of mutualism. The bacteria aid in digestion and provide protection against the invasion of pathogenic bacteria.
Similarly, the root nodules of leguminous plants such as chickpea and soybeans, play host to nitrogen fixing bacteria. The bacteria fix atmospheric nitrogen, thereby increasing nutrient availability for the plant. In turn, the plant provides a rich sugar solution to the bacterium. Trophic Levels Trophic levels refer to the hierarchical stages in a food chain, starting from autotrophs and moving towards primary, secondary and tertiary consumers.
An organism that is a predator at one trophic level can become the prey at a higher trophic level. A herbivore is a predator of plants that becomes prey to carnivores. When sea urchins feed on kelp, they are predators. In turn, they can be consumed by sea otters. Animals at the top of the food chain are called apex predators.
They have no known predators. Often, they play a key role in maintaining the biodiversity of the ecosystems and are considered keystone species. Any changes to their population or density has a wide range of effects on the entire ecosystem. Therefore, most food chains and webs do not have more than three or four trophic levels.
Related Biology Terms Apex predators — Organisms at the top of the food chain with no known predators. Examples include lions, tigers, crocodiles, polar bears and killer whales. Autotrophs — Organisms capable of using light or chemical energy to form nutritional organic molecules from simple inorganic substances, such as carbon dioxide or methane. Crustaceans — A large group of mostly marine invertebrates that includes crabs, shrimp and barnacles.
Germination — The process by which a quiescent seed grows into a new plant.Symbiotic Relationships
Seed dispersal — The movement of seeds away from the parent plant, to ensure that the seeds receive enough nutrients in order to germinate and grow. Territory — The geographical region defended by an organism, primarily for mating and hunting.
Which of these is NOT a form of carnivory? Consumption of eggs B. Infection by a parasite C. Consumption of insects by insectivorous plants D.