In its brief form, a psychodynamic approach enables the client to examine unresolved conflicts and symptoms that arise from past dysfunctional relationships and. In the treatment of infantile autism, behaviorists emphasize directed behavioral therapists tend to focus attention on the worker-child relationship. of intervention are important, and that both play a role in virtually all therapeutic efforts. This has led families and clinicians to reconsider the need for play therapy for and Stern have further enriched theories in attachment and object relations is inconsistency in a student's ability to learn theory and to learn therapeutic skills.
Psychodynamic theory has evolved a fair amount over its long history, and many variations of the original theory are available today. One popular branch of modern psychodynamic theory, known as object relations theory, is concerned with how people understand and mentally represent their relationships with others.
The "objects" in object relations theory are representations of people how other people are experienced, represented and remembered by the person doing the objectification. According to object relations theory, people's moods and emotions and many other aspects of their personalities can only be properly understood against the backdrop of the relationships those people have experienced.
It is a foundational assumption of object relations theory that early relationships tend to set the tone for later relationships.
According to object relations theory, depression is caused by problems people have in developing representations of healthy relationships. Depression is a consequence of an ongoing struggle that depressed people endure in order to try and maintain emotional contact with desired objects.
There are two basic ways that this process can play out: Even though these terms are not currently used in the DSM, some therapists may still use them to label different types of depression.
Anaclitic depression involves a person who feels dependent upon relationships with others and who essentially grieves over the threatened or actual loss of those relationships. Anaclitic depression is caused by the disruption of a caregiving relationship with a primary object and is characterized by feelings of helplessness and weakness. A person with anaclitic depression experiences intense fears of abandonment and desperately struggles to maintain direct physical contact with the need-gratifying object.
Introjective depression occurs when a person feels that they have failed to meet their own standards or the standards of important others and that therefore they are failures.
Introjective depression arises from a harsh, unrelenting, highly critical superego that creates feelings of worthlessness, guilt and a sense of having failure. A person with introjective depression experiences intense fears of losing approval, recognition, and love from a desired object. Historically, psychodynamic theories were extensively criticized for their lack of empiricism e.
However, this resistance to putting psychodynamic concepts on a scientific footing has started to change recently. Another modern derivative of psychodynamic theory, Coyne's interpersonal theory of depression has been studied extensively, and forms the basis of a very effective treatment option known as Interpersonal Therapy or IPT. According to interpersonal theory a depressed person's negative interpersonal behaviors cause other people to reject them.
In an escalating cycle, depressed people, who desperately want reassurance from others, start to make an increasing number of requests for reassurance, and the other people to whom those requests are made start to negatively evaluate, avoid, and reject the depressed people or become depressed themselves. Depressed people's symptoms then start to worsen as a result of other people's rejection and avoidance of them.
IPT has been designed to help depressed people break out of this negative spiral. The four schools are: Freudian psychology is based on the theories first formulated by Sigmund Freud in the early part of this century and is sometimes referred to as the drive or structural model.
Defense mechanisms are constructions of the ego that operate to minimize pain and to maintain psychic equilibrium. The superego, formed during latency between age 5 and pubertyoperates to control id drives through guilt.
Ego Psychology derives from Freudian psychology. Its proponents focus their work on enhancing and maintaining ego function in accordance with the demands of reality.
Object Relations psychology was first articulated by several British analysts, among them Melanie Klein, W. Winnicott, and Harry Guntrip. According to this theory, human beings are always shaped in relation to the significant others surrounding them. Our struggles and goals in life focus on maintaining relations with others, while at the same time differentiating ourselves from others.
The internal representations of self and others acquired in childhood are later played out in adult relations. Individuals repeat old object relationships in an effort to master them and become freed from them. Self Psychology was founded by Heinz Kohut, M. The self is perceived in relation to the establishment of boundaries and the differentiations of self from others or the lack of boundaries and differentiations.
Each of the four schools of psychoanalytic theory presents discrete theories of personality formation, psychopathology formation, and change; techniques by which to conduct therapy; and indications and contraindications for therapy. Psychodynamic therapy is distinguished from psychoanalysis in several particulars, including the fact that psychodynamic therapy need not include all analytic techniques and is not conducted by psychoanalytically trained analysts.
Psychodynamic therapy is also conducted over a shorter period of time and with less frequency than psychoanalysis. Introduction to Brief Psychodynamic Therapy The healing and change process envisioned in long-term psychodynamic therapy typically requires at least 2 years of sessions.